Etymologically, the English word "sapphire" derives from Latin sapphirus, sappirus from Greek σαπφειρος (sappheiros) from Hebrew סַפִּיר (sappir). Some linguists propose that it derives from Sanskrit, Shanipriya (शनिप्रिय), from "shani" (शनि) meaning "Saturn" and "priya" (प्रिय), dear, i.e. literally "dear to Saturn".
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, consisting of aluminium oxide(α-Al2O3) with trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium. It is typically blue, but natural "fancy" sapphires also occur in yellow, purple, orange, and green colors; "parti sapphires" show two or more colors.
sapphire mine produces a wide range of quality and origin is not a guarantee of quality. For sapphire, Kashmir receives the highest premium although Burma, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar also produce large quantities of fine quality gems.
Blue sapphires are found in many countries worldwide and although many of the important sapphire deposits in Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Myanmar(Burma),Kenya and Tanzania are geologically related to each other, country of origin have an effect on the value of a gemstone, especially when the stone is of fine quality and there is a definite market ranking for sapphire according to origin:
3. Ceylon/Sri Lanka
4. Madagascar, Australia, Thailand, Cambodia, Tanzania, etc.