Etymologically, the English word "sapphire" derives from Latin sapphirus, sappirus from Greek σαπφειρος (sappheiros) from Hebrew סַפִּיר (sappir). Some linguists propose that it derives from Sanskrit, Shanipriya (शनिप्रिय), from "shani" (शनि) meaning "Saturn" and "priya" (प्रिय), dear, i.e. literally "dear to Saturn".
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, consisting of aluminium oxide(α-Al2O3) with trace amounts of elements such as iron, titanium, chromium, copper, or magnesium. It is typically blue, but natural "fancy" sapphires also occur in yellow, purple, orange, and green colors; "parti sapphires" show two or more colors.
 sapphire mine produces a wide range of quality and origin is not a guarantee of quality. For sapphire, Kashmir receives the highest premium although Burma, Sri Lanka, and Madagascar also produce large quantities of fine quality gems.
Blue sapphires are found in many countries worldwide and although many of the important sapphire deposits in Sri Lanka, Madagascar, Myanmar(Burma),Kenya and Tanzania are geologically related to each other, country of origin have an effect on the value of a gemstone, especially when the stone is of fine quality and  there is a definite market ranking for sapphire according to origin:
1. Kasmir 
2. Burma  
3. Ceylon/Sri Lanka 
4. Madagascar, Australia, Thailand, Cambodia, Tanzania, etc.

Kashmir Sapphire

The most famous source of blue sapphires is Kashmir, but most of fine Kashmir sapphires are old stones that have been bought and sold numerous times. Because of their reputation and the fact that no new material is being produced, Kashmir sapphires are avidly sought by collectors who are paying almost any astronomical price for it. 

Burma Sapphire

Sapphires from  Mogok, in northern Burma are the next highest on the ladder. Current production of fine gems  is very limited.  Burma sapphires are darker than Kashmir sapphires and  their color often described as Royal blue. They are also more transparent than Kashmir stones with little or no color zoning.

Ceylon Sapphire

Sri lanka is well known for the fine quality and broad range of colors of the sapphires which are found there. Almost every color is found. Ratanapura is an important center for mining and new stones are offered on the local market every day. Sri Lanka is known for producing the largest sapphires in the world. Sapphires from Sri Lanka  got a boost in their popularity  when Prince Charles gave Lady Diana an engagement ring set with a Ceylon sapphire.

Introduction to Burmese and Kashmir Sapphires

When it comes to the finest gem quality blue sapphires in the world, nothing can compare with the best stones from Kashmir in northern India, and its neighbor to the east, Burma. Sapphires were first discovered in Kashmir around the year 1880, in the region known as Padar. Mining activity went on for several decades, but the finest material came out within the first thirty years. By contrast, Burma has been producing sapphires from several localities for well over 1,000 years.
Burmese and Kashmir sapphires possess the very highest concentration of blue color possible. The only way to properly understand this is to see the very best of Kashmir or Burmese sapphires side by side with the best from any other source in the world.
To illustrate this point, Kashmir and Burmese fine blue sapphires consistently yield the highest prices at the top international auction houses around the world. The record is currently held by a Burmese gem that sold for over US$45,000 per carat in 1988. So, proof of Burmese or Kashmir origin has become a critical point in determining the value of the gem being sold.
Production from Kashmir has been virtually nothing for the past several decades, making fine sapphires from this source nearly impossible to find. Burma however, does continue to produce excellent quality sapphires to this day.

# Reference From Internet Source #